العدد الثانيمجلة التميز للعلوم الطبية

In Vitro and in vivo Efficacy of Three Medicinal Plants on adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni

Saada Mohamed Nour*1, Yahia Fadul Tahir 2, Ikram Madanin Ahmed 3 Mona A M Mageed 4 and Moneeb Yahia Fadul Tahir5

1Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Bahri, Khartoum, Sudan.

2Department of Archeology, Faculty of Art, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.

3Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.

4 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan            5Third year Medical student, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum.

*Correspondence: Saada Mohamed Nour Kheiry, Tel. 002490122547151, email saada.nori@yahoo.com

Abstract:

Background: Schistosomiasis is a common disease in the tropics and subtropics. Although praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice due to its high cure rates, the development of PZQ resistance by different Schistosoma species has been observed.

Aim: This study was an attempt to find an alternative to PZQ by evaluating the activity of the raw aqueous extracts of three medicinal plants: Hagenia abyssinica (fruits), Ambrosia maritima L. (leaves) and Catunaregam atunaregam nilotica (fruit), against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

Methods: In vitro, the extracts were used against adult worms in different concentrations (10000, 5000, 1000, 500, 250, 50, and 25 ppm) compared to the same concentrations of PZQ. The time of worm paralysis and worm death was determined. For the in vivo study, infected mice were divided into three groups i untreated ii PZQ-treated at dose (40 mg/kg) iii aqueous raw extracts treated at dose (1 ml of 10 000 ppm).

Results: All adult worms exposed to Catunaregam nilotica (50ppm) in vitro, died within 20 to 25 minutes after incubation, while Hagenia abyssinica (250ppm) required 1-1.5 hours to kill all adult worms, but Ambrosiamaritima (1000 ppm) killed all adult worms within 3 hours. Mice treated with aqueous extracts of C. nilotica and praziquantel looked very healthy. The percentages of total worm burden reduction in mice treated with the aqueous extracts: C.  nilotica = 55%, H.  abyssinica =40.2%, A. martima = 24.2%, and praziquantel = 59%.

Conclusion: The metabolites of Catunaregam nilotica (fruit) were the most potent schistosomicidal which revealed the lowest toxic concentration that killed all worms within the shortest time. Hagenia abyssinica (fruit) and Ambrosia maritima L. (leaves) were also safe and promising metabolites for the treatment of schistosomiasis.

Keywords:

Catunaregam nilotica, Hagenia abyssinica, Ambrosia maritima, Schistosoma mansoni

Introduction

Schistosomiasis is an important public health problem in rural communities located near slow-moving water canals in the tropical and sub-tropical regions with an effect on the development of socio-economic state of affected area.  Schistosomiasis   represent the second parasitic disease in the world after malaria, considering the number of people infected and the extent of endemic areas. Chemotherapy  is the main strategy of control, with praziquantel  the drug of choice for treatment of scistosomiasis (WHO, 1999)(Sakina and Ahmed, 2018). Because of the tolerance or resistance to praziquantel, research to produce new drugs for the cure and prevention of Schistosoma mansoni has become realistic. Ismail, et. Al. (1994) and (Abdel Aziz et. al., (2018) reported that the use of PZQ., especially in low sub curative dose may cause the resistance of the therapeutic dose of the drug in the coming generations. A large number of Sudanese endogenous plants are reported as a sources for the control of snail hosts and chemotherapy of schistosomiasis (Suliman and Ebrahim, 1994). This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of three medicinal plants used in Sudanese folk medicine (fruits of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce ex Steud.) J.F. Gmel, leaves of Ambrosiamaritima L.), and fruit part of Catunaregam nilotica (Stapf) Tirveng. On adult male and female worms of S. mansoniin vitro and in vivo.

Materials and Methods Plant material

Catunaregam nilotica (fruits) were collected from western Sudan (Kordofan province) and eastern Sudan (Angesna Mountains). Ambrosia maritima leaves) were collected from northern Sudan (Northern province, Maha’s area). Hagenia abyssinica (fruits) were purchased from herbalisms in Khartoum state. All plant samples were authenticated by Dr. Ikram Madanin Ahmed, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

Preparation of extracts

Dry clean coarse plant material was macerated with distilled water and kept for 24 hours at room temperature. The extract was filtrated and dried using a rotary evaporator (Elshafei, Habiballa, and Mohamed, 2019). Ten grams of the dry extract was dissolved in 1000ml distilled water to give a solution of 10 g /liter (10000 ppm). Further serial dilutions were prepared using the above stock solution to give concentrations of 5000 1000, 500, 250, 100, 50, and 25ppm (de Oliveira et al., 2017).

Praziquantel which was obtained from (Ministry of Health, Department of schistosomiasis) was freshly suspended in  13ml of 2% Cremophore (El Sigma Chemical Co.) and orally administered to mice at a dose of 40mg/kg bodyweight single dose(Al Hamshary et al., 2018).

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